This dataset contains temperature data from the TOGA/WOCE transect PX3/PX5 between NE Australia and Japan. The coverage of this transect is partial. Data have been collected since August 1986 and are ongoing. The transect is repeated approximately 8 times a year. The data were obtained from XBTs (expendable bathythermographs) deployed via merchant vessels, and are now managed by the Joint Australian Facility for Ocean Observing Systems (JAFOOS), a collaborative venture between CSIRO Marine Research and the Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (BMRC).