Lingula anatina were collected from the intertidal sand flat at Shelly Beach, near Townsville and transported to the laboratory at the Australian Institute of Marine Science in 1972.
After acclimation for 7 days in normal seawater, 20 Lingula anatina were placed in each of 8 aquaria, which contained seawater at salinities of 50.0, 36.5, 25.5, 20.6, 16.0, 11.5, 5.0 and 0 ppt respectively. The aquaria were maintained at a temperature 23±1°C. The viability (rapid "snap" reflex of valves) of the animals was monitored for 35 days and the time of loss of viability and time of death were recorded. Animals surviving after 35 days were returned to normal seawater and observed for a further 7 days.
Burrowing experiments were conducted using 10 intact animals and 10 without pedicles. Animals were placed in aquaria with circulating seawater and buried at depths of 5, 10 and 20 cm in sand from Shelly Beach. The number of animals reaching the surface was recorded at 12 hour intervals or less for 5 days. Groups of animals with and without pedicles were also placed on the surface of sand from Shelly Beach in either stationary or slowly oscillating trays and burrowing monitored for 5 days.
Ten animals, which had cast off their pedicles during transport to the laboratory were placed in each of 4 aquaria containing seawater at salinities of 36.5, 30, 20, and 10 ppt respectively and maintained at a temperature 25±1°C. Pedicle regeneration was observed for 14 days and then observed for a further 14 days after transferring the animals to normal seawater. To simulate more natural conditions, a further 10 animals without pedicles were buried under 10 cm of sand in an aquarium with circulating seawater. After 14 days the animals were removed form the sediment and the pedicles measured.